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Toggle## Introduction to Cryptography

The science of encrypting and decrypting data to prevent unauthorized access is known as cryptography in cybersecurity. In cryptography, data and personal information are transformed so that only the intended recipient can decrypt the message. Cryptography is an important feature of modern data security since it provides for safe data storage and transit between interested parties. Cryptography can use codes, digital devices, simple or complex rules, specific decoders, software, and other methods, but the basic purpose is to enable encryption and decryption. In other words, cryptography encodes data in such a way that it can be decrypted and understood by the intended recipient.

The following are some characteristics of cryptography:

**Confidentiality:**Only the individual for whom the information is meant has access to it, and no one else has access to it.**Integrity**: Information cannot be changed in storage or in transit between the sender and the intended receiver without being noticed.**Non-repudiation**: The information creator/sender cannot dispute his plan to convey information at a later time.**Authentication**: The sender’s and receiver’s identities have been verified. The information’s destination/origin is also confirmed.

Encryption and Decryption are the essence to the art of Cryptography in Cyber Security as well. So what do these terms mean? Below we will discuss about them and also understand different types of Cryptography in Cyber Security and How do they work in order to maintain the confidentiality of the data and information.

### What is Encryption

Encryption is the technique of encrypting data so that it cannot be decoded by third parties, even if it is stolen. This scrambling is accomplished by the use of certain mathematical computations and processes, which are referred to as ciphers. It encrypts the message using an encryption key in addition to the cipher.

### What is Decryption

Decryption is the reverse of encryption in the cryptography in cybersecurity process. Decryption is the process of undoing the work that encryption has done. It reassembles the jumbled data into its original form, making the data readable once more. The encryption key that was used to scramble the data can usually be used to decrypt it, however this varies depending on the type of cryptography used. A key is required for both the encryption and decryption of data, regardless of whether they are the same.

## Types of cryptography in Cybersecurity

### 1. Symmetric Key Cryptography in Cybersecurity

Symmetric key cryptography is a kind of cryptography in which both the sender and the receiver utilize the same shared key to encrypt and decode a communication. AES (Advanced Encryption System) is the most extensively used symmetric key cryptography, and it is also known as private or secret key cryptography. Because there is just one single key for encryption and decryption, the symmetric key scheme has one important disadvantage: the two parties must share the key in a safe manner.

Symmetric key cryptography in Cybersecurity types include: AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), DES, Triple DES, RC2, RC4, RC5, IDEA, Blowfish, Stream cipher, Block cipher, and so on.

### 2. Asymmetric Key Cryptography in Cybersecurity

Public-key cryptography is another name for this. It uses a number of different and secure methods to transmit data. Both the sender and the receiver go through encryption and decryption operations using a pair of keys. Each individual has a private key, and the public key is shared across the network so that a message may be sent using public keys. RSA is the most common kind of encryption utilized in this procedure. The use of a public key is more secure than using a private key. The following are some examples of asymmetric key cryptography:

- Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA)
- the Digital Signature Standard (DSS), which incorporates the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
- Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC)
- the Diffie-Hellman exchange method
- TLS/SSL protocol

### 3. Hashing Cryptography in Cyber Security

Hash functions are one-way, irreversible functions that safeguard data while preventing recovery of the original message. Hashing is a method of converting a variable length string into a fixed length string. For each input, a good hashing algorithm will generate distinct outputs. The only method to crack a hash is to attempt every potential input until you obtain the same hash every time. A hash can be used to hash data (like passwords) and to create certificates.

Some of the most popular hashing algorithms are:

- MD5
- SHA-1
- SHA-2 family which includes SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512
- SHA-3
- Whirlpool
- Blake 2
- Blake 3

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Also Have a Read: **What are the skills required to become an ethical hacker**